The Postojna region was populated as early as in the Stone Age, which is proved by numerous finds of stone and bone tools, as well as the remains of cave dwellings. Later, written sources are quite rare. Being a transit point between the sea and Ljubljana, Postojna was mentioned by the famed historian Valvasor. He described it as a pleasant place where former castle keepers had built their houses. Bad hygiene and frequent migrations towards Italy resulted in repeated epidemics. Thus, in 1788, 1790, 1802 and 1807, smallpox claimed the death of many children. In 1855, however, soldiers on their way from Lombardy brought cholera, which caused more than 400 casualties. Moreover, superstition and charlatanism were exceedingly common among people.

In some villages, midwives, besides helping with births, also treated people. They identified illnesses and pregnancy by examining urine. They made remedies and balms themselves. The first doctor in the area of Postojna, who is recorded in the central register, was Hermagor Zachini. He died in 1791.

Such a situation in health care resulted in the wish and a demand for a hospital.